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::1.2.1 Early 1400s to Late 1800s: The Optical Era  
::1.2.1 Early 1400s to Late 1800s: The Optical Era  
::1.2.2 Late 1800s to Early 1900s: The Electromechanical Era  
::1.2.2 Late 1800s to Early 1900s: The Electromechanical Era  
::1.2.3 Early and mid-1900s: The Electronic Era >
::1.2.3 Early and mid-1900s: The Electronic Era  
::1.2.4 Late 1900s to Early 2000s: The Digital Era  
::1.2.4 Late 1900s to Early 2000s: The Digital Era  
::1.2.5 The Fascination of Three Dimensions
::1.2.5 The Fascination of Three Dimensions

Revision as of 14:09, 1 June 2016


In the last decade, new displays have been developed at an ever-increasing pace: bulky cathode ray tubes have been replaced by flat panels and mobile phones, tablets, and navigation systems have proliferated. Seeing this explosion raises tantalizing questions about the future evolution of visual displays:

  • Will interactive 3D experiences replace passive 2D ones?
  • Will pixels die out and be replaced by voxels or hogels?
  • Will printed displays be sold by the square yard and glued to the wall?
  • Will disposable displays, powered by printed batteries and with built-in storage chips, talk to us from cereal boxes?
  • Will chip implants directly interface to our brains, eliminating the need for any displays at all?

Displays: Fundamentals and Applications begins by presenting the basics of wave optics, geometric optics, light modulation, visual perception, and display measures, along with the principles of holography. It then describes the technology and techniques behind projection displays, projector-camera systems, stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays, computer-generated holography, and near-eye displays. In addition, the authors discuss how real-time computer graphics and computer vision enable the visualization of graphical 2D and 3D content. The text is complemented by more than 400 rich illustrations, which give readers a clear understanding of existing and emerging display technology.

Table of Contents


1 Introduction
1.1 Displays: A Bird's-Eye View
1.2 Milestones of Display Technology
1.2.1 Early 1400s to Late 1800s: The Optical Era
1.2.2 Late 1800s to Early 1900s: The Electromechanical Era
1.2.3 Early and mid-1900s: The Electronic Era
1.2.4 Late 1900s to Early 2000s: The Digital Era
1.2.5 The Fascination of Three Dimensions
1.3 Organization of the Book
2 Fundamentals of Light
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Electromagnetic Radiation
2.3 Principles of Light Generation
2.3.1 Thermal Radiation
2.3.2 Applications of Thermal Radiation Laws
2.3.3 Open Systems and the Greenhouse Effect
2.3.4 Color Temperature
2.3.5 Bremsstrahlung
2.3.6 Photon Energies
2.3.7 Electron Excitation
2.3.8 Gas Discharge
2.3.9 Electroluminescence
2.4 Measuring Light
2.4.1 Radiometry
2.4.2 Photometry
2.5 Physics of Light
2.5.1 Interference
2.5.2 Quantum Effects
2.5.3 Fourier Spectrum
2.5.4 Radiation Processes Revisited
2.5.5 Tunneling
2.5.6 Quantum Dots
2.5.7 Polarization
2.5.8 Circular Polarization
2.6 Summary

3 Principles of Optics
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Wave Optics
3.3 Geometric Optics
3.4 Formation of Point Images
3.5 Lasers
3.6 The Plenoptic Function
3.7 Summary

Basics of Visual Perception
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Human Visual System
4.3 Colorimetry
4.4 Depth Perception
4.5 Motion Pictures
4.6 Summary

Holographic Principles
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Holography: A Summary
5.3 Interference and Diffraction
5.4 Holographic Optical Elements (HOE)
5.5 Optical Holography
5.6 Summary

6 Display Basics
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fundamental Measures
6.3 Color and Intensity Production
6.4 Signal and Image Processing
6.5 Electronics
6.6 Assembly
6.7 Power Consumption
6.8 Summary

Spatial Light Modulation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Transmissive Displays
7.3 Reflective Displays
7.4 Transflective Displays
7.5 Transparent Backlight Displays
7.6 Emissive Displays
7.7 Tiled Displays
7.8 High Dynamic Range Displays
7.9 Bidirectional Displays
7.10 Projection Displays
7.11 Summary

8 Projector-Camera Systems
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Challenges of Non-optimized Surfaces
8.3 Geometric Registration
8.4 Radiometric Compensation
8.5 Correcting Complex Light Modulations
8.6 Overcoming Technical Limitations
8.7 Summary

9 Three-Dimensional Displays
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Three-Dimensional Displays: Basic Considerations
9.3 Spatial Stereoscopic Displays
9.4 Autostereoscopic Displays
9.5 Light-Field Displays
9.6 Computer-Generated Holograms
9.7 3D Media Encoding
9.8 Summary

10 Near-Eye Displays
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Eye Physiology
10.3 Brightness and Power Consumption
10.4 Display Technologies for Near-Eye Displays
10.5 Examples of Near-Eye Displays
10.6 Combiner Mirrors
10.7 Optics Design
10.8 On-Axis NED
10.9 Laser Displays
10.10 Smart Near-Eye Displays
10.11 Focus and Accommodation
10.12 Light Field NED
10.13 Holographic Image Generation for NED
10.14 Advanced HOE Designs
10.15 Contact Lens Displays
10.16 Adaptive Displays and Eye Tracking
10.17 Image Integration
10.18 Summary

11 Discussion and Outlook
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Next Steps in Display Technology
11.3 A Short Reflection on Displays
11.4 Brain-Computer Interfaces -- The Ultimate Solution?
11.5 Conclusion

Appendix (2nd edition): Perceptual Display Calibration (by Rafa l K. Mantiuk)
1 Display Models'
2 Visual Display Calibration
3 Contrast Sensitivity
4 Quantization and Bit-Depth
5 Summary

Appendix (1st edition): Image Processing for Displays (by Anselm Grundhöfer)
A. The Fixed-Function Graphics Pipeline
B. The Programmable Graphics Pipeline
C. Graphics Hardware
D. GPU Programming Languages
E. An Introduction to GPU Programming by Example
F. The Swiss Army Knife of GPU Image Processing



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